Inference questions test your ability to follow the logical flow of an argument and to determine what logically follows from the information provided. In an inference question, the right answer is something that must be true or is very likely to be true based upon the statements in the prompt. The prompt in an inference question will be made up of facts and information, not the authorâ€™s opinion or argument.
A test taker can expect to see between six and eight inference questions across both Logical Reasoning sections in a given test. Inference questions also frequently appear on the Reading Comprehension section.
Studies have shown that moderate consumption of red wine by those of legal drinking age reduces their susceptibility to cancer in the future. Researchers speculate that this is because red wine is rich in the chemical resveratrol. Low levels of resveratrol are associated with high levels of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, a chemical family whose members are potentially carcinogenic.
Which one of the following statements is most strongly supported by the information above?
(A) An increased risk of cancer is correlated with low levels of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes.
(B) A decreased risk of cancer is correlated with moderately increased levels of resveratrol.
(C) An increased propensity for cancer is correlated with decreased levels of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes.
(D) A decreased propensity for cancer is correlated with low levels of resveratrol.
(E) Cancer is prevented by ingestion of resveratrol in quantities sufficient to prevent a decline in the levels of cytochrome P450 isoenzymesl.
The answer should be deduced from the statements above.
Choice B: By (1) and (2), increasing consumption of red wine implies increasing resveratrol intake. The increased consumption of resveratrol, as stated in (1), is associated with a reduced susceptibility to cancer. Choice B is correct.
Choice A: Opposite. By (3), decreased levels of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes would be less likely to be carcinogenicÂ (cancer-causing).
Choice C: Opposite. By (3), an increased propensity for carcinogens is correlated with non-decreased levels of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, while this choice states that the propensity is associated with “decreased levels” of the members of this chemical family.
Choice D: Opposite. By (3), a decreased propensity for cancer is correlated with moderate, not low, levels of resveratrol.
Choice E: The argument states that moderate levels of resveratrol are associated with decreased levels of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, which in turn helps to prevent cancer. This choice states, erroneously, that resveratrol prevents a decline in the isoenzymes.